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新托福写作:disk的用法

分类:托福辅导 日期:2017-12-19 分享到

  新托福写作:disk的用法

  托福综合写作原文:

  Throughout the Greek islands, archaeologists have found over 200 plate-sized ceramic disks dating to about 2000 to 3000 B.C.E. The disks are typically decorated on one side, while the other side is undecorated and has a raised edge that creates a shallow basin. They usually also have short handles. Archaeologists are still unclear about what the objects were used for. Three theories about their function have been proposed.

  Pans for Cooking Food

  Some archaeologists believe that the objects were used for cooking food. These archaeologists believe that food was placed on the undecorated side and that the raised edge on that side prevented the food from falling out of the pan. The handle would have made it easier and safer to remove the pan from a cooking fire or oven.

  Drums

  Other archaeologists believe that the objects were drums for making sounds. These archaeologists point out that animal skins could have been stretched over the side with the raised edge, creating an air chamber that would have amplified sound when the animal skin was struck. According to this theory, the person doing the drumming would hold the drum by the handle with one hand and strike the skin with the other hand.

  Mirrors

  Yet other archaeologists believe that the objects were a kind of ancient mirror. Although the objects are not made of a reflective material, they could have been used to create a reflection by pouring a liquid, such as olive oil, into the shallow basin with the raised edge. Supporters of this theory point out that the decorations found on the ceramic disks are similar to decorations found on hand-held metal mirrors made in ancient Greece.

  Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.

  阅读:出土了一种用陶土做的disk,一面有花纹,一面没花纹。没花纹那面周围有一圈凸起刚好形成了一个浅浅的碗。disk下面还有短短的手柄。这种disk有三种可能的用法。

  1、用来做饭,disk无花纹面的碗刚好可以盛放食物,而手柄方便烹饪的时候移动disk。

  2、用来当鼓,往disk上蒙上兽皮,就可以形成一个腔体。人们可以一手持手柄,一手击鼓。

  3、用作镜子。往无花纹面里到些液体,就可以当镜子用了。而且,这种用法很像古希腊的手持镜子。

  听力:上用法都不可信

  1、不可能用于烹饪的。想一想我们家里用的pans and pots,使用之后会black end or discolored,因为长时间接触高温,炊具势必会发黑。但是出土的200件disk中没有一个出现了这种情况。

  2、做鼓使用也不可能发出好听的声音。这中disk使用陶土制作,即使蒙上兽皮敲击的声音也远不如用兽皮和木头制作的鼓好听。此外,陶土制作的鼓非常沉,使用不便。

  3、无法当作镜子。倒入液体后,disk就必须被水平放置,这样人们可以弯腰照镜子。但是被水平放置后,有花纹的那一面就看不见了。古希腊的镜子是手持的,垂直拿在手里,这样可以随时看见镜子的花纹。

  主题

  希腊发现了200多个圆盘状的ceramic disks,一边平面的有装饰,一边是周围有突起的边没装饰的。三种理论推测用途。

  R&L对照

  Reading:

  1、Pans for cooking food.因为没装饰那边凹进去,盛菜不会撒,且有把手好握着;

  2、Drums.把动物皮绑在disks周围突起上面,可以制成鼓等等;

  3、Mirrors. 古人把水等液体放进去,容器放平,弯腰就能看见自己的figure。

  Lecture: 逐一反驳

  1、如果用来盛菜,会使ceramic disks变得blacken and discolor,因为高温。同时出土的近200多件,太少了,不会是盛菜用的;

  2、这样的做法敲起来不会有好的声音,解释了一般的鼓部分原理。并且为什么古人放着那么多充足的适合做鼓的材料不用而用它呢;

  3、如果是为了做镜子用,就要把镜子平放,那么人家干嘛还把背后平的那一面弄上装饰呢,反正又没人看得见嘛。

 

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